The International Journal of Food and Bioscience (IJFB) is an open access journal publishes the articles related to physical, chemical or microbiological methods and techniques used in food processing and technology. Our main aim is to publish most complete reliable source of information with evidence on the discoveries and future developments in the mode of original articles. we will publish all types of Research article, Review article, Editorial, Photographic image, Video Article, and Short communication, etc.
International Journal of Food and Bioscience (IJFB) primarily focuses on the topics: Food science, Food engineering, Food microbiology, Food packaging, Food preservation, Food technology, Aseptic processing, Food fortification, Food rheology, Dietary supplement, Food safety, Food chemistry, etc.
Food science can be simply defined as the branch of science that involves application of basic knowledge and technological breakthroughs in the field of physics, chemistry, biology and engineering for the enhancement of the quality as well as quantity of food for public consumption. It also includes critical analysis of food components, biochemical nature and composition of food items, their physiological role, causes of spoilage and microbial deterioration, tools and techniques involved in food processing. The study of food science encompasses study and research of food chemistry, food engineering, food packaging, food preservation, food technology, molecular gastronomy, quality control and sensory food analysis. The major thrust areas in the field of food science are aseptic food processing, food pairing, food supplements, food fortification, food grading and rheology.
Food engineering is a multidisciplinary study that incorporates the persisting knowledge on food science, microbiology and engineering, for the development of new and improved methods of cost efficient production of food items, and effective methods for the distribution of natural and processed food products and expanding the reach of services which involve widespread distribution of food items. In order to comprehend and invent new methods in food engineering, comprehensive and integrative knowledge of physical sciences, chemical sciences, biological sciences and mathematics is indispensable. Food engineering specifically deals with the technical aspects of food processing, packaging, the required machinery and instrumentation. The main focus of food engineering research involves development of new and advanced methods for the production of safe, healthy, pharmaceutical foods, installation of the production plants, and dealing with the waste management issues.
Food microbiology encompasses the study of micro-organisms that inhabit food items and cause contamination and spoilage of food. Additionally in also includes study of the taxonomy, biochemistry, molecular biology and industrial applicability of the microbes that can be used for the generation of food items. In the recent years the advent of the concept of good bacteria lead to a revolution in food technology and now researchers are relentlessly working on identification and standardization of the application of probiotic bacteria. The most frequently studied microbes that find widespread applications in the food industry are – baker’s yeast, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, etc. Food microbiological research specifically corresponds to the various aspects of food safety, fermentation technologies, microbial biopolymers, food authenticity and testing. Since increased numbers of people are consuming packages and processes food, the real time applicability of food microbiology is very high.
Food packaging is crucial for the protection, transportation, distribution and marketing of the manufactured and packaged food items. Proper packaging of food provides protection against physical pressures and impacts, as well as microbial contamination and spoilage. In addition they are useful in marketing and publicizing the food item. Usually the manufacturers write the information on the ingredients used, method of preparation, nutritional content, number of calories, date of manufacture and expiry date. Food packaging is considered as one of the major thrust areas in the research activities on food technology. Research activities concerned with food packaging involves technical issues involved in the development of a biocompatible, nontoxic packaging materials and processes, development of automated technologies for food packaging, labor requirements, reliability, energy usage as well as the efficiency, productivity and ergonomics of the food packaging industry.
Food preservation denotes the methods and practices that are intended to restrict the microbial contamination, visual and quality deterioration of the food items. Basically it involves preventing bacterial and fungal infections. Additionally it may also refer to prevention of natural oxidation of fats that may cause rancidity. Visual deterioration involves changes in the visual appearance of the food item, which may reduce its nutritional value or visual appeal. One of the most common examples of visual deterioration is browning of cut fruits like apples. The conventionally used methods of food preservation include drying, cooling, freezing, heating, boiling, salting, sugaring, smoking, pickling, canning, jellying, burial in in some cases curing via fermentation. The contemporary methods of food preservation encompass pasteurization, vacuum packing, artificial food additives, irradiation, pulsed field electroporation and bio-preservation.
Food technology encompasses of all the methods and procedures that are involved in the process of production of food items. Primary research studies on food technology were basically focused on development of new methods of food preservation. Present day food technology involves the research, innovation, design and application of new technological interventions in the food industry. Some of the most remarkable developments in the field of food technology are the production and commercialization of milk powder, freeze drying, high temperature processing, production of decaf tea and coffee and process optimization.
The basic principle behind aseptic processing is the manufacturing, processing and packaging of food and pharmaceutical products in aseptic conditions. The process of sterilization and maintenance of aseptic conditions include application of flash heating for heat sterilization of the area, use of clean rooms and bacteria retaining filters. Aseptic processing involves packaging and preservation of food items in aseptic conditions. This helps in preservation and maintenance of the sterility and quality of the food items until they are opened for consumption. In order to achieve this, the packaging material used plays a crucial role. It helps in preventing wear and tear, leakage, `microbial contamination, degradation and spoilage of the food item. Aseptic processing is strictly adhered to in the manufacture, processing and packaging of milk products, fruit juices, tomatoes, chicken and vegetable stocks, soups and uncooked whole eggs.
Food fortification is a revolutionary concept which envisages enrichment of the manufactured food with externally added micronutrients. Mostly, fortification is done for commercial purposes but it sometimes it provides a good and easy way in supplying the required amount of nutritional components to compensate for dietary insufficiencies. It has been observed that in some regions the staple food grown lacks a specific nutritional component either due to the soil properties or environmental factors. In such cases supplementing the lacking component in staple food or condiments will help in preventing diseases in mass scale. The most commonly fortified food items are cereal based food products, milk and milk derived food products, cooking oils, beverages and infant food. The most critical issue that limits the promotion of fortification of food items include, limited body absorption and excess intake of particular nutrient.
Rheology is the branch of science that deals with the study of flow of liquid and semisolid matters. Food rheology specifically deals with the study of the flow and other rheological factors of food items under specified set of conditions. Study of rheological factors like consistency, fluidity and other mechanical properties help in the estimation of the number of days, months or years the food item can be stored without affecting its texture and other appealing features. These types of studies are usually concerned with food items like, jams, jellies, sauces, bread spreads etc. Apart from that psychorheological factors are also considered in the food industry. Psychorheological description of the food item is based on how the food item feels in the mouth viz. chewy, gummy, sticky, hard, soft etc.
Dietary supplements are designed and administered to compensate the dietary insufficiencies of human body. The nutritional components generally taken as dietary supplements include vitamin, minerals, dietary fibers, amino acids and fatty acids. They are prescribed by medical professionals in the event of malnutrition, imbalanced intake of nutritional components or in patients recovering from chronic illness. Dietary supplements may also be taken as a preventive measure to avoid occurrence of diseases and health complications in under nutrition of imbalanced dietary intake. They are generally used by sportsmen and professional body builders to enhance their productivity and output. Many researchers are investigating the exact dosage, beneficial or adverse effects to ensure the proper use of these dietary supplements.
Food safety encompasses the study, formulation and application of guidelines that is intended to avoid the occurrence of food borne diseases. The sole aim of food safety is to safeguard its consumers form severe health hazards resulting from microbial contamination or adulteration of the food item. Food safety often goes hand in hand with food defense. The food safety regulations are very stringent and it demands that the manufacturer must disclose the information regarding the origin of the food, practices employed for the labeling of the food item, hygiene specifications and information regarding the food additives used. The food safety regulations also insist on regular inspections of the methods and processes employed in the process of food production, processing, preservation, packaging and distribution. Additionally it also specifies to check for the presence of any pesticide residues. If such residues are found strict action is taken against the company. Another major aspect of food safety is close monitoring and inspection of the quality, checking and certification of the food items imported or exported out of a region or country.
Food chemistry is a specialised branch of food science that emphasises on the detailed analysis of the various chemical constituents of a food item. It also studies the possible change in structure, texture, feel, taste and edible properties of the food items which may be brought about due to change in physical conditions, environmental factors and chemical constitution. The study of food chemistry is almost similar to biochemistry because it also involves study of biochemical components of the food viz. carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals etc. Additionally food chemistry also analyses the chemical structure and biological impact of the food additives, flavourings, enzymes and food colours used in the manufacture of the food item. One of the most important aspects of food chemistry involves checking the quality of the water used in the manufacture process. Furthermore, chemical analysis to detect for the presence of any undesirable chemical constituents which may be present in the food items are also conducted.
Artificial Food Additives