The Major topics of the journal are:
1. Analytical toxicology
2. Anatomical pathology
3. Audiology and hearing therapy
4. Autonomic neurovascular function
5. Blood transfusion science
6. Cardiac physiology
7. Cervical cytology
8. Clinical biochemistry
9. Clinical embryology
10. Clinical immunology
11. Clinical perfusion
12. Critical care science
13. Diagnostic radiology
14. Electron microscopy
15. External quality assurance
16. Gastrointestinal physiology
18. Haemostasis and thrombosis
19. Histocompatibility and immunogenetics
20. Histopathology and cytopathology
21. Microbiology including mycology
22. Molecular genetics and cytogenetics
24. Ophthalmic and vision science
26. Respiratory and sleep physiology
27. Tissue banking and transplant
29. Vascular science
32. Infectious Disease Prevention
The electron microscope is a type of microscope, that use of electron beam to produce the image of the system, whereas, the magnification is obtained by electromagnetic fields. It provides higher magnification and greater resolving power that allows visualising much smaller object in finer details. Different types of electron microscopes are available such as; Transmission electron microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope and Reflection electron microscope. Electron microscope technique is use to investigate the ultrastructure of wide range of inorganic and biological specimens such as; cells, microorganisms, biopsy samples, metals, large molecules and crystals. Advanced electron microscopes produce electron micrographs by using specialized digital cameras and frame grabbers to capture the image.
The branch of biology that covers the study of immune system in living organism is termed as Immunology, whereas, the cellular immunology provides the latest information and advancements to understand the immunological responses of the host, in both in vitro and in vivo, by introducing basic research and clinical applications. In addition clinical immunology is the study of diseases caused by alterations in immune system, which may be due to immune deficiency or auto immunity. Wide varieties of techniques are available in clinical immunology for the investigation of disorders associated with humoral and cellular immune responses. These are radio immune assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting, southern blotting, flow cytometer etc.. These techniques are widely applied for detecting wide range of proteins, hormones, and specific antibodies and used in many aspects of laboratory medicine.
The study of blood in health and disease is termed as Hematology. Hematology science involves five types of WBCs such as; monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils. The four major areas in hematology include; hemoglobinopathy, anemia, coagulopathy and malignancies. It deals with the problems associated with white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, blood vessels, bone marrow lymphnodes, spleen and the proteins involved in bleeding and clotting. The medical aspect of hematology is considered to treat malignance and blood disorders, including types of lymphoma, leukemia, and sickle-cell anemia. The treatment includes; diet advice, oral medicine, anticoagulation therapy, blood trans fusion, platelet transfer, bone marrow transfer etc.
Blood Transfusion Science:
The transfer of blood from one person to another is known as blood transfusion. This is generally done as a lifesaving manoeuvre in order to replace the blood cells or its products, due to severe bleeding, during surgery, anemia etc, when the body fails to make blood properly because of illness. Blood transfusion is associated with some mild complications and it may even lead to severe complications. Blood banks staff screen each and every sample donated by donors to specify the type of blood group i.e A, B, AB and O and also check whether it is Rh-positive and Rh-negative. Before transfusion the white blood cells should be removed from blood samples and this process is termed as white cell or leukocyte reduction, in very rare cases some may develop side effects with white blood cells.
Analytical toxicology deals with screening, confirmation, identification and quantification of foreign compounds, by following toxicological and pharmacological interpretations. Analytical methods are available for wide range of compounds such as; pesticides, pharmaceuticals, drug of abuse, natural toxins and their metabolites in related samples. In addition analytical toxicology laboratories involves wide range of other activities, such as the assessment of exposure following chemical incidents, therapeutic drug monitoring, forensic analyses, and for monitoring drug of abuse. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid-chromatography are most widely used techniques, now-a day in analytical toxicology. The development of analytical toxicological services includes a number of considerations such as; pattern of poisoning, on-going technical support, existing infrastructure, reagents, and availability of trained staff.
Clinical embryology is a young branch of reproductive science that has undergone enormous expansion over last twenty years. Clinical embryology is involved in infertility treatment and reproductive research. This field mainly focus on the human reproductive biology, embryology, and infertility. The infertility treatment has undergone phenomenal development and became a highly specialised field involving a multitude of interventions collectively known as assisted reproductive technology. Every year approximately one million of ART treatments are performed. Clinical embryology communicates the patients about the specific treatment options regarding fertility and also provides solutions regarding the infertility.
Over the last century anatomical pathology massively evolved, these days centred on the prognosis and diagnosis of cancer eventually impact on oncological treatment methods. Anatomical pathology deals with study of basic morphology to the advanced molecular techniques of specimens from body parts to investigate diseases. It consists of several sub disciplines such as surgical, histopathology, cytopathology, forensic, dermatopathology. The study efficiently delivers the important information from current trend of literature and offers an enormous data to assist in managing the flow of valuable information in pathology. The special features include pathologic-radiologic and pathologic-cytologic correlations. The daily practices of pathology benefitted by traditional morphologic studies using standard diagnostic techniques and stressing clinicopathological correlations and scientific observation.
Cervical screening is the process of selecting and confiscating abnormal tissues in the cervix to tackle the cervical cancer developments. Worldwide 0.5 million cases of cervical cancers were reported among 0.2 million deaths are attributed to cervical cancer year after year. It is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women, dramatically decreased incidence rate of cervical cancers along with increase in screening efforts were observed from past decades. The incidence and prevalence rate in developing country were remains high due to lack of awareness and screening programs. Several screening methods for cervical cancer are practiced among pap test and liquid-based cytology have been proved to be effective in diminishing incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer.
Biochemistry as a field of knowledge emerged very prominently during the latter half of the 20th century, for playing key role unveiling the mysteries of life on earth. Biochemistry is a study which deals with structures, interactions, and functions of biomolecules and their metabolism. Biochemical research thus has a significant impact on many life sciences, including botany, medicine and genetics. Advancements in biochemistry and bio analytical techniques enhance the progression of unlike fields such as drug designing, medicine and nutrition, etc. Clinical biochemistry studies add to the knowledge ranging from leaf extracts to Biomarkers, which provides a platform for the researchers of distant related disciplines to imbibe latest advancements that helps in disease diagnosis and treatment.
Cytopathology is a branch of pathology, it deals with diagnosis and examination of cells from various body parts to determine the nature of the disease or reason that caused the disease. The first step in cytopathology is Pap test, used to screen cervical cancer and it is considered as the most successful screening test in medical history. This made a path to expand the cytopathology to collect the sample from all parts of the body. The main techniques employed in cytopathology includes; bronchoscopy or cystoscopy. The tissue mass is diagnosed by employing fine needle aspiration biopsy. These tests are associated with mild discomfort to the patients and also guide the primary physicians to opt a correct decision regarding the treatment in the next follow up.
Biomechanics and Mechanobiology
Biomedical imaging and instrumentation
Computational Modeling and Data Sciences
Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine
Molecular and cellular biology
Synthetic and Systems Bioengineering
Therapeutic medical devices