Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists of structural injuries or physiological changes in brain function following exposure to external forces. Head injury in infancy and childhood has been documented as the single most common cause of death depending on the modes of injury and the mechanisms of damage.RTA being reported as the second common cause of TBI after fall from a height.Aims and Objectives: To analyze the epidemiological factors and the extend of brain damage following RTA in pediatric age group in Qatar. To highlight the importance to increase the safety measures for children while being inside motor vehicles. Materials and Methods:This is a retrospective study from January 2015 to January 2018 at PICU in Hamad general hospital, Doha, Qatar. All the details from case records of children <14 years with RTA who required admission to PICU because of brain injuries were analyzed and their neuroimaging finding were reviewed. Results: All children with RTA who needs admission to PICU with brain injury were studied. Total no were 23 patients. (17 male &6 female), (8 were pedisatranian 2 riding a cycle 13(unrestrained passenger) were inside the car but none of them wearing seat built and /or following the safety measures for children being inside a car or riding a cycle .the most common brain injury was (frontal parenchymal hemorrhagic contusions in addition to extra-parenchymal hemorrhage), diffuse axonal injury with cerebral edema was associated with poor prognosis and indicate severe injury. Conclusion: frontal parenchymal brain injury being the most common type of brain injury secondary to head collision being a pediatric passenger without using the safety measure especially seat built. Such safety measure should be included in road traffic regulation law which can affect the severity of RTA associated brain injuries in pediatric age group. Diffuse axonal injury and raised ICP were associated with bad prognosis.
Neuroimaging, Head injury, Pediatric age group, Road traffic accident, Traumatic brain injury.