Bovine Anaplasmosis is one of the most important tick borne diseases of ruminants worldwide causing significant economic losses in the livestock industries in the tropical and subtropical areas mainly due to the high morbidity and mortality in susceptible cattle herds. The objective of this seminar is to review on epidemiology of bovine anaplasmosis. Bovine Anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is an infectious but non-contagious disease. It is spread through tick bites or by the mechanical transfer of fresh blood from infected to susceptible cattle from biting flies or by blood-contaminated fomites including needles, ear tagging, and dehorning and castration equipment. Transplacental transmission of A. marginale may contribute to the epidemiology of bovine Anaplasmosis in some regions. Bovine Anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Cattle of all ages are susceptible to infection with A. marginale, but the severity of disease increases with age. The common clinical sign of bovine anaplsmosis can be listed as: Fever (in some), anorexia, rapid loss of body condition, severe decrease in milk production, pale and icteric mucous membranes, increased heart and respiratory rates, muscle weakness and depression. Diagnosis of bovine Anaplasmosis can be made by demonstration of A. marginale on stained blood smears from clinically infected animals during the acute phase of the disease, but it is not reliable for detecting infection in pre-symptomatic or carrier animals. In these instances, the infection is generally diagnosed by serologic demonstration of antibodies with confirmation by molecular detection methods. Anaplasmosis can be treated by adiminstration oxytetracycline.Control measures for bovine Anaplasmosis vary with geographical location and include maintenance of Anaplasma free herds, vector control, administration of antibiotics and vaccination. Generally, Anaplasmosis is one of the ricketticia diseases of bovine which decrease development of country. Intensive acaridae application to control ticks has a number of limitations, therefore, immunization together with strategic tick control is recommended for exotic and crossbred cattle.
Anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale, Bovine Rickettsia, Tick